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Bacterial virulence factors

Plant resistance genes

Molecular Diagnosis and Diversity for Regulated Xanthomonas

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Poplar (//Populus// spp.)

Author: Noemi Casarin
Internal reviewer: Pavel Beran
Expert reviewer: FIXME

Pathogen: //Xanthomonas populi// pv. //populi//

Resistance synthetic gene: //D4E1//




Transgenic hybrid poplar Populus tremula L. x Populus alba L., line Tr23 (Mentag et al., 2003).

Status (identified, mapped, cloned, sequenced)

Cloned in the plasmid pBI-d35S-D4E1-nos (Cary et al., 2000) and in the plasmid ubi7-D4E1 (Mentag et al., 2003).

Molecular markers

  • PCR analysis of genomic DNA with specific primers to verify that the ubi7-D4E1-nos expression cassette is present in the plant genome of transgenic poplar clones (Mentag et al., 2003);
  • Expression of D4E1 tested by RT-PCR and RNA dot-blot analysis (Mentag et al., 2003).

Brief description

A synthetic gene coding for D4E1 (Cary et al., 2000), which is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide consisting of 17 amino acid residues (Demeter BioTechnologies, Ltd.) (De Lucca et al., 1998). Mentag et al. (2003) observed reduced symptoms on one D4E1-transgenic poplar line (Tr23) in response to X. populi pv. populi two months after its inoculation compared with control plants (Figure 1). These reduced symptoms correlated with the presence of large amount of the D4E1 transcript in Tr23 (Mentag et al., 2003).

Pathogen elicitors

  • Crude elicitors from X. campestris pv. campestris strain 147
  • Crude elicitors from X. populi pv. populi strain 2551

Genes involved in defense

MAPK genes (Hamel et al., 2005; Duplessis et al., 2009).




Hybrid poplar cell suspension cultures of Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides H11-11 (Dr. M. Gordon, University of Washington, Seattle, WA) (Hamel et al., 2005).

Status (identified, mapped, cloned, sequenced)


Molecular markers

Expression of MAPK genes tested by in-gel kinase assay (Hamel et al., 2005).

Brief description

Perception of a mix of various elicitors from both bacterial strains (which can be quite specific but for which the specific poplar R-genes for Xanthomonas spp. are unknown) activated two MAPKs of about 44 and 47 kD, probably of ERK-type. The MAPKs are then activating plant defense mechanisms (Hamel et al., 2005).

Resistance gene: Unknown




  • P. nigra: good resistance (Pinon & Valadon, 1995).
  • Hybrid P. x euramericana (parental species: P. deltoides and P. nigra): different susceptibility behaviors depending on the cultivars (Pinon & Valadon, 1995).
  • P. trichocarpa: good resistance (Pinon & Valadon, 1995).
  • Hybrid P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides: good resistance (Pinon & Valadon, 1995).
  • P. alba: generally good resistance (Pinon & Valadon, 1995).

> See Table 1 for resistant cultivars found in literature.

Status (identified, mapped, cloned, sequenced)


Molecular markers

Morphological markers.

Brief description

Resistant species or cultivars are determined by field observations or by controlled mechanical inoculations of the pathogen into the plants. A literature synthesis of the susceptibility of main European cultivars to X. populi pv. populi was made by Pinon & Valadon in 1995.

Table 1: Main European resistant cultivars to X. populi, according to the literature synthesis of Pinon & Valadon (1995).

P. nigra P. x euramericana P. trichocarpa P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides
cv. Ankum (Anonymous, 1982a)cv. Brandaris (Anonymous, 1982a)
cv. Loenen (Anonymous, 1982b)
cv. Schoorldam (Anonymous, 1982a)
cv. Vereecken (Anonymous, 1982b; Ride & Ride, 1993)

cv. Wolterson (Anonymous, 1982a)
cv. Agathe F (Anonymous, 1982a; Ride & Ride, 1993; Koster, 1972; Viart, 1972)
cv. Bietigheim (Albrecht & Boden, 1988
cv. BL Costanzo (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Bleu d’Exaerde (Kolster, 1967)
cv. Boccalari (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Büchig (Albrecht & Boden, 1988)
cv. Campeador (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Dolomiten (Albrecht & Böden, 1988)
cv. Gaver (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Ghoy (Ride & Ride, 1993; Soulères, 1982a; Soulères, 1982b)
cv. Gibecq (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. I214 (Anonymous, 1982b; Ride & Ride, 1993; Albrecht & Boden, 1988; Kolster, 1967; Janssen, 1989)
cv. I455 (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Isières (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Koster (de Vries, 1987)
cv. Lampertheim (Albrecht & Böden, 1988)
cv. Ogy (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Ostia (Ride & Ride, 1993; Albrecht & Böden, 1988)
cv. Primo (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Rintheim (Albrecht & Böden, 1988)
cv. Serotina de Selys (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Spijk (Anonymous, 1982a; Koster, 1972)
cv. Blom (Anonymous, 1982a; Ride & Ride, 1993; Koster, 1972)
cv. Columbia River (Ride & Ride, 1993; Albrecht & Böden, 1988; Soulères, 1982a; Soulères, 1982b; Janssen, 1989; Kechel & Böden, 1985)
cv. Fritzi Pauley (Anonymous, 1982a; Ride & Ride, 1993; Koster, 1972; Albrecht & Böden, 1988; Kolster, 1967; Janssen, 1989)
cv. Scott Pauley (Ride & Ride, 1993; Albrecht & Böden, 1988)
cv. Trichobel (Ride & Ride, 1993; Soulères, 1982b)
cv. Beaupré (Ride & Ride, 1993; Soulères, 1982a; Soulères, 1982b)
cv. Hunnegem (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Raspalje (Ride & Ride, 1993)
cv. Unal (Ride & Ride, 1993; Soulères 1982a; Soulères, 1982b)


Albrecht J, Böden E (1988). Zur Krankheitsanfälligkeit von zugelassenen Pappelklonen der Sektionen Aigeiros und Tacamahaca. Holzzucht 42: 25-29.

Anonymous (1982a). Populierengids n°1. Wageningen, the Netherlands, 39 p.

Anonymous (1982b). Populierengids n°2. Wageningen, the Netherlands, 40 p.

Cary JW, Rajasekaran K, Jaynes JM, Cleveland TE (2000). Transgenic expression of a gene encoding a synthetic antimicrobial peptide results in inhibition of fungal growth in vitro and in planta. Plant Sci. 154: 171-181. DOI: 10.1016/s0168-9452(00)00189-8

De Lucca AJ, Bland JM, Grimm C, Jacks TJ, Cary JW, Jaynes JM, Cleveland TE, Walsh TJ (1998). Fungicidal properties, sterol binding, and proteolytic resistance of the synthetic peptide D4E1. Can. J. Microbiol. 44: 514-520. DOI: 10.1139/w98-032

de Vries SMG (1987). Populus euramericana ’Koster’. Ned. Bosb. Tijdschr. 4: 99.

Duplessis S, Major I, Martin F, Séguin A (2009). Poplar and pathogen interactions: Insights from Populus genome-wide analyses of resistance and defense gene families and gene expression profiling. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 28: 309-334. DOI: 10.1080/07352680903241063

Hamel LP, Miles GP, Samuel MA, Ellis BE, Seguin A, Beaudoin N (2005). Activation of stress-responsive nitrogen-activated protein kinase pathways in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides). Tree Physiol. 25: 277-288. DOI: 10.1093/treephys/25.3.277

Janssen A (1989). First results of resistance tests on different poplar clones in vitro with the bacterial canker pathogen Xanthomonas populi Ridé. Proc Meeting IUFRO working party S2.02.10, Hann Münden, 2-6 October 1989.

Kechel HG, Böden (1985). Resistenzprüfung an Pappeln aus Gewebekultur. Eur. J. For. Path. 15: 45-51. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.1985.tb01041.x

Kolster HW (1967). Populiererassen in de EEG Landen en hun bruikbaarheid voor Nederland. Stichting Bosbouwproefstation ’De Dorschkamp’, 150p.

Koster R (1972). Elf nieuwe populiereklonen : ten geleide. Ned. Bosb. Tijdschr. 238: 173-189.

Mentag R, Luckevich M, Morency MJ, Seguin A (2003). Bacterial disease resistance of transgenic hybrid poplar expressing the synthetic antimicrobial peptide D4E1. Tree Physiol. 23: 405-411. DOI: 10.1093/treephys/23.6.405

Pinon J, Valadon A (1995). Comportement des cultivars de peupliers commercialisables dans l’Union européenne vis-à-vis de quelques parasites majeurs. Ann. Sci. For. 54: 19-38. DOI: 10.1051/forest:19970103

Ride M, Ride S (1993). Sensibilité de cultivars ou clones de peuplier à Xanthomonas populi, agent du chancre bactérien, 5 p.

Soulères G (1982a). Informations populicoles. Rev. For. Fr. 4: 327-328.

Soulères G (1982b). Étude sur cinq nouveaux cultivars de peupliers. Forêts de France 255: 29-34.

Viart M (1972). Note sommaire sur onze nouveaux clones néerlandais. Rev. For. Fr. 24: 293-294.

Further reading

Nesme X,Steenackers M, Steenackers V, Picard C, Ménard M, Ridé S, Ridé M (1994). Differential host-pathogen interactions among clones of poplar and strains of Xanthomonas populi pv. populi. Phytopathology 81: 101-107. PDF:

plant/populus.txt · Last modified: 2021/01/25 22:19 by rkoebnik